Gramazio Kohler Research
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Compas Timber
AIXD: AI-eXtended Design
AI-Augmented Architectural Design
Impact Printing
AR Timber Assemblies
Architectural Design with Conditional Autoencoders
Integrated 3D Printed Facade
Think Earth SP7
Robotic Plaster Spraying
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Human-Machine Collaboration
Timber Assembly with Distributed Architectural Robotics
Eggshell Benches
Autonomous Dry Stone
Data Driven Acoustic Design
Mesh Mould Prefabrication
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Thin Folded Concrete Structures
Adaptive Detailing
Deep Timber
Robotic Fabrication Simulation for Spatial Structures
Jammed Architectural Structures
Digital Ceramics
On-site Robotic Construction
Mesh Mould Metal
Smart Dynamic Casting and Prefabrication
Spatial Timber Assemblies
Robotic Lightweight Structures
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Complex Timber Structures
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Robotic Integral Attachment
Mobile Robotic Tiling
Software Environments
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Additive Fabrikation

Timber Assembly with Distributed Architectural Robotics, 2018-2022
PhD Forschungsprojekt
This PhD research focuses on the robotic assembly of timber structures with integral timber joints, specifically, crossed-half-lap joints. The proposed method uses a set of custom-built, remote-controlled, high-force robotic clamps to operate in collaboration with an industrial robotic arm to overcome challenges of timber joint assembly, such as providing large assembly forces and overcoming misalignments. This method enables the automatic assembly of non-repetitive and spatially connected timber structures.
To aid the design of structures that can be constructed with this fabrication method, we developed custom computer modeling, visualization, and feasibility-checking software for designing structures with lap joints. In addition, we also used state-of-the-art software for (1) Online robotic control, for synchronizing arm and clamps (2) Robotic path planning among dense partially-built structures. (3) Structural analysis of the completed timber structure. We developed custom software for modeling, visualization, and feasibility-checking
As a proof of concept, we have designed and robotically assembled a spatial frame structure (4.8 x 3.0m footprint, 3.4m tall) at the Robotic Fabrication Lab, ETH Zurich comprising 40 pieces of 100x100mm profile timber elements. We used a 6-axis robotic arm mounted on a 3-axis overhead gantry and four custom robotic clamps for the assembly.


Leung, Pok Yin Victor, Aleksandra Anna Apolinarska, Davide Tanadini, Fabio Gramazio, Matthias Kohler. " Automatic Assembly of Jointed Timber Structure using Distributed Robotic Clamps." In PROJECTIONS - Proceedings of the 26th CAADRIA Conference - Volume 1, The Chinese University of Hong Kong and Online, Hong Kong, 29 March - 1 April 2021, pp. 583-592.

Yijiang Huang, Pok Yin Victor Leung, Caelan Garrett, Fabio Gramazio, Matthias Kohler, Caitlin Mueller. "The new analog: A protocol for linking design and construction intent with algorithmic planning for robotic assembly of complex structures." SCF '21: Symposium on Computational Fabrication 9, 2021 (2021): 1-17.

CAADRIA 2021 conference video

Gramazio Kohler Research, ETH Zürich

In Zusammenarbeit mit: Prof. Dr. Agathe Koller-Hodac, Marco Rossi (Ostschweizer Fachhochschule), Prof. Caitlin Mueller, Yijiang Huang (MIT, Department of Architecture Building Technology)
Forschungsprogramm: NFS Digitale Fabrikation
Mitarbeiter: Pok Yin Victor Leung (Projektleitung), Dr. Aleksandra Anna Apolinarska, Prof. Joseph Schwartz, Davide Tanadini, Gonzalo Casas

Copyright 2024, Gramazio Kohler Research, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Gramazio Kohler Research
Professur für Architektur und Digitale Fabrikation
ETH Zürich HIB E 43
Stefano-Franscini Platz 1 / CH-8093 Zürich

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